The weather can be good or bad, but its anomalies fascinate us always. We have chosen the most unusual natural phenomena that occur across the globe and are very rare.
# Braynikl (finger of death)
We used to see the icicles hanging from the roof. However, in the Arctic have special icicles that hang under water and are a mortal danger for the inhabitants of the ocean floor. This phenomenon was discovered almost 30 years ago, but to photograph the process of his birth was only in 2011 the team channel BBC.
Formation of this extraordinary icicles easily explained by science. Salt water freezes differently and not converted into the icy expanse, and in something like a porous wet washcloth. Icebergs are literally riddled with small channels filled with salt water.
In northern latitudes on the surface temperature may be -20 degrees Celsius, the temperature of water is much higher – about -2 degrees. The heat from the ocean water rises up and heat a little iceberg, forming new ice. The salt of this ice is concentrated in the brine and out through small channels in the ocean.The density of the brine higher and lower temperatures, so it directs to the bottom of a continuous stream and freezes around seawater. Within a few hours the flow of ice covered with a thin crust that looks like a stalactite.
Reaching the bottom, “finger of death” does not stop and continues to spread along the bottom. For 15 minutes, this structure is able to destroy all the unhurried living organisms in an area of a few meters. It is for this fatal icicle and called “ice finger of death.”
# Tubular clouds
There are a large number of clouds, which have a specific shape and special causes. Strange and unusual look vymyaobraznye or tubular clouds. They are similar whether on sections of pipe, whether on a lot of hanging balls, a shade that changes from white to blue-gray. The color depends on the thickness of the cloud.
How do they get? Usually clouds flat base. Warm moist air cools and condenses into water droplets. This occurs at a predetermined temperature and lowering it into the atmosphere due to the altitude. Droplets grow and form an opaque cloud.
However, under special conditions (wet, dry air at the top and bottom) in the atmosphere begin to form cloud pockets filled bolshimi water droplets or ice crystals, which, under its own weight literally sink into the fresh air. This behavior of clouds associated with the turbulent movement of air masses. A turbulent air movement indicates the neighborhood of a powerful storm front.
Like any raised surface, tubular clouds particularly spectacular in light of the regime, to watch the sunrise or sunset. They mainly occur in the tropics, but also appear in the more northern latitudes.
# White rainbow
White rainbow – it is also one optical phenomena in the atmosphere, similar to the well-known over the rainbow. The phenomenon is a broad brilliant white arc. However, this kind of rainbow colored neutral, and you can not see it in the rain, and during the fog.
For the occurrence of a misty rainbow require strict conditions. Droplets of water from which the mist is formed, must have a certain size – about 0.02 mm.However, due to the diffraction of light split the spectrum combined to give a uniform white color.
Due to boundary effects of the inner radius of the rainbow can be painted in purple color, appearance does have an orange tint.
# Catatumbo Lightning
Catatumbo Lightning – a natural phenomenon that occurs in the north-west of Venezuela, of the same name where the river empties into Lake Maracaibo.Above the confluence of the observed regular storm activity of lightning in the clouds is almost 200 days a year, continuous lightning session lasts about 10 hours.
This is where warm and moist air masses from the Caribbean are the cold air that comes down from the Andes, resulting in formation of eddies. The decaying organic numerous marshes emits methane gas. It improves the electrical conductivity of the cloud, causing zipper.
For a long time, this place served as a landmark for sailors – it can be seen from a distance of more than 400 km. The Venezuelan government wants to make the location a unique UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is believed that it is the largest natural ozone generator.
This phenomenon is much easier to see in a fantasy quest than in reality. It takes a number of factors: the full moon must be low, the sky when it should be dark and the lights should be placed in front of a powerful waterfall or go rain.
Still, you will see a lunar rainbow completely white. The fact is that even under the best of conditions, its brightness is very low, and human physiology allows you to see only the white rainbow.
There may come to the aid of modern camera that shoots at slow shutter speeds. Exposure to 15-30 seconds will allow the sensor to collect enough light, and you can see a rainbow colored already, but only in pictures.
Gloria – another phenomenon associated with the diffraction of light in the clouds or fog droplets. This weather phenomenon can be detected only when the light source is behind you and the light reflected from the clouds returned directly to the viewer. Gloria can be seen in the mountains as its own silhouette, or during the flight as the shadow of an airplane on a cloud.
Rainbow halo around his own shadow interpreted by Buddhists as the degree of enlightenment of man. The seemingly huge and vibrant shade worried Germans who have risen to the mountains.
# Coastal cappuccino
The sea can turn into a lather in any part of the world, but most often it occurs in the southern hemisphere. Within a few minutes the entire coast, houses and chairs disappear suddenly appeared in the foam that slowly dissolves in the sand.
For foaming in seawater must be large accumulation of algae and some salt waste. These components act as surfactants (such as shampoo in your bath) and reducing the surface tension at the interface between water and air. But strong currents and the wind does not cost anything beat all ingredients in a rich foam and put it towards a stunned swimmers.
While the foam is only occasionally. But with the further pollution of the ocean it can become entrenched.
# Sprites, elves and “blue jets”
In addition to lightning that we see from Earth, above thunderclouds there is a powerful flash, aimed into space. They are divided into red sprites, “blue jets” and the elves. Shape and color bursts depend on the height at which they occur.
Unlike lightning, these outbreaks are characterized by a pronounced blue or red, and cover distances of up to 100 km in length and diameter. This makes them an element of space weather, as these areas are generated auroras and meteors fly.
This phenomenon has not been studied for one reason: to the Earth can be observed only flashes at a low altitude. Now conducted their study with the ISS.According to some reports, the strong emissions of electricity can be “cast out” of the protective ozone layer.
Waterspouts look like small tornadoes of water, and they usually occur under cloud above the water surface. Although a party may seem that water is literally sucked out of the liquid, the tornado is located above the surface and consists of water droplets formed by condensation.
Occasionally strong waterspouts occur, but most of them are weak and are caused by the collision of atmospheric dynamics, which forms a vortex.
This natural phenomenon occurs extremely rarely and under certain environmental conditions (temperature, air flow). It occurs when a column of hot, rising air interacts with the fire on the ground or is caused by it. Is a vertical vortex of fire in the air.
# Morning Glory
Morning Glory – a rare meteorological phenomenon, “storm collar”, which is formed at the boundary of the advancing cold front. Downdraft forces the warm moist air to rise and cool – as a result it cools below its dew point and becomes a cloud.
This occurs along the entire front: Cloud obtained up to 1000 km, and then rotated around its longitudinal axis. Speed rolling clouds can reach 60 km / h, which portends a heavy wind and bad weather in the direction of “collar”.
By the nature of the origin of Morning Glory can be considered a tornado, which lies on its side. She appears regularly in the autumn in the north of Australia, and occasionally in other parts of the world.
# Volcanic Lightning
Volcanic activity provides a very “fertile” ground for spectacular places, and in several ways. An incredible amount of ejected volcanic dust and gas creates a dense stream of charged particles.
This causes an electrostatic ionization and, as a consequence, very powerful and very frequent lightning, which try to neutralize the charge. There are two types of lightning: 1) spouting out of the crater and its associated electrical processes in the magma, 2) taking place in the clouds, and the friction of volcanic ash.
However, the processes grozoobrazovaniya at volcanoes are very complex and depend on many factors: temperature, altitude eruption, the dispersion of the dust and its composition. Because of the large number of solid particles of volcanic ash are also referred to as dirty thunderstorms.