Camouflage (23 pictures).
Camouflage is the concealment of otherwise visible objects by any combination of methods that allows them to remain unnoticed. It may be used by animals, soldiers, military vehicles and other objects to blend with their environment, or to make them resemble something else. Examples include the leopard’s spotted coat, the battledress of a modern soldier, or a leaf-mimic butterfly. Camouflage can be achieved in very different ways. Mimesis is being seen, but resembling something else whereas crypsis is being hidden. In either case, camouflage is achieved by not being noticed. A third approach, motion dazzle, confuses the observer with a conspicuous pattern, making the object visible but momentarily harder to identify. The majority of camouflage methods aim for crypsis, often through a general resemblance to the background, high contrast disruptive coloration, eliminating shadow, and countershading. In the open ocean, where there is no background, the principal methods of camouflage are transparency, silvering, and countershading, while the ability to produce light is among other things used for counter-illumination on the undersides ofcephalopods such as squid. Some animals, such as chameleons and octopuses, are capable of actively changing their skin pattern and colours; they often use this ability both for camouflage and for signalling.
Military camouflage was spurred by the increasing range and accuracy of firearms in the 19th century. In particular the replacement of the inaccurate musket with the rifle made personal concealment in battle a survival skill. In the 20th century, military camouflage developed rapidly, especially during the First World War. On land, artists such as André Mare designed camouflage schemes and observation posts disguised as trees. At sea, warships and troop carriers were painted in dazzle patterns that were highly visible, but designed to confuse enemy gunners as to the target’s speed, range, and heading. During and after the Second World War, a variety of camouflage schemes were used for aircraft and for ground vehicles in different theatres of war. The use of radar in the Cold War period has largely made camouflage for fixed-wing military aircraft obsolete.
Non-military use of camouflage includes making cell telephone towers less obtrusive and helping hunters to approach wary game animals. Patterns derived from military camouflage are frequently used in fashion clothing, exploiting their strong designs and sometimes their symbolism. Camouflage themes recur in modern art, and both figuratively and literally in science fiction and works of literature. /wikipedia